uses of computer network

Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. An internetwork is the connection of multiple different types of computer networks to form a single computer network by layering on top of the different networking software and connecting them together using routers. In 1977, the first long-distance fiber network was deployed by GTE in Long Beach, California. Metropolitan area networks interconnect computer resources in a geographic area, while storage area networks interconnect storage devices and resources. Log in. A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the network nodes. The SSL client checks this certificate (all web browsers come with an exhaustive list of CA root certificates preloaded), and if the certificate checks out, the server is authenticated and the client negotiates a symmetric-key cipher for use in the session. Use of Bridge in Computer Network. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs.[36]. There have been various attempts at transporting data over exotic media. Network segmentation through bridging and switching helps break down a large, congested network into an aggregation of smaller, more efficient networks. Other type… The cost and complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoption across both enterprise and small to medium-sized business environments. In that case, the packet is queued and waits until a link is free. Another method to avoid the negative effects of network congestion is implementing priority schemes, so that some packets are transmitted with higher priority than others. COMPUTER NETWORK Introduction The term ''computer network'' to mean a collection of autonomous computers (A computer /nodes that has its own processing capabilities and does not act under the control of any other computer is known as autonomous computer) interconnected by a single technology. Computer networking may be considered a branch of computer science, computer engineering, and telecommunications, since it relies on the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines. Firewalls are typically configured to reject access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones. The process of aggregating networks is called network bridging. Shelly, Gary, et al. Computer Network Computer Engineering MCA. The computer networks are playing an important role in providing services to large organizations as well as to the individual common man. Ethernet, sometimes simply called LAN, is a family of protocols used in wired LANs, described by a set of standards together called IEEE 802.3 published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. COMPUTER NETWORK & COMMUNICATIONS LEARNING AREA 3 (LA 3) Norhasimah Bt Mohamed – Head of ICT Panel, SMK Sungai Pusu, Gombak Sel. Network delay is a design and performance characteristic of a telecommunications network. Users may access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer or use of a shared storage device. There are multiple types of network, such as the computer network, the electrical network and the social network.. The media and protocol standards that enable communication between networked devices over Ethernet are defined by IEEE 802.3. A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. Routing is the process of selecting network paths to carry network traffic. These are main advantages of Computer Networks: Central Storage of Data – Files can be stored on a central node (the file server) that can be shared and made available to each and every user in an organization. Examples of end-to-end encryption include HTTPS for web traffic, PGP for email, OTR for instant messaging, ZRTP for telephony, and TETRA for radio. Often the route a packet needs to take through a network is not immediately available. Logical networks, called, in the TCP/IP architecture, subnets, map onto one or more transmission media. There are many communication protocols, a few of which are described below. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters. A network interface controller (NIC) is computer hardware that connects the computer to the network media and has the ability to process low-level network information. Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet is a community of interest under private administration usually by an enterprise, and is only accessible by authorized users (e.g. Here we are going to discuss some of the uses of computers in various fields. These include: exponential backoff in protocols such as 802.11's CSMA/CA and the original Ethernet, window reduction in TCP, and fair queueing in devices such as routers. [citation needed] With many technologies, such as bus or star networks, a single failure can cause the network to fail entirely. Computer networks allow users to access interactive entertainment channels, such as video on demand, interactive films, interactive and live television, multiperson real-time games and virtual-reality models. The interconnections between nodes are formed from a broad spectrum of telecommunication network technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies. . The Internet is a network that connects users from all parts of the world. The Internet itself was initially built as an overlay on the telephone network. Computer networks are the basis of communication in IT. A community of interest has less of a connection of being in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers, and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies. The World Wide Web, E-mail,[39] printing and network file sharing are examples of well-known network services. Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers. ", "Bigger Monster, Weaker Chains: The Growth of an American Surveillance Society", "Anonymous hacks UK government sites over 'draconian surveillance, "Hacktivists in the frontline battle for the internet", Important publications in computer networks, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Computer_network&oldid=994436031, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2018, Articles with incomplete citations from August 2018, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Federal Standard 1037C, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the U.S. military radar system, In 1960, the commercial airline reservation system. Apart from any physical transmission media, networks are built from additional basic system building blocks, such as network interface controllers (NICs), repeaters, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, modems, and firewalls. Overlay networks have also been proposed as a way to improve Internet routing, such as through quality of service guarantees to achieve higher-quality streaming media. Computer networking was influenced by a wide array of technology developments and historical milestones. End-to-end encryption generally protects both confidentiality and integrity. Depending on the installation requirements, network performance is usually measured by the quality of service of a telecommunications product. Normally, the backbone network's capacity is greater than that of the individual networks connected to it. A computer network is a network that connects multiple computers. . Overlay networks have been around since the invention of networking when computer systems were connected over telephone lines using modems, before any data network existed. Network email can be instantaneously delivered to all users, voice mail systems can be hosted via network and made available systemwide and collaborative scheduling software and program management tools allow employees to coordinate meetings and work activities that maximize … Computer networks may be classified by many criteria, for example, the transmission medium used to carry signals, bandwidth, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network size, the topology, traffic control mechanism, and organizational intent. . A router uses its routing table to determine where to forward packets and does not require broadcasting packets which is inefficient for very big networks. Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths. Computer Network Computer Engineering MCA. For example, the NIC may have a connector for accepting a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry. Computer networks are also used by security hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network via a denial-of-service attack. When money or sensitive information is exchanged, the communications are apt to be protected by some form of communications security mechanism. Scanners, Cd burners, Fax machines are few other resources which can be shared in a network. Most importantly, networks enable multiple users to share devices (for example, printers) and data (for example, spreadsheet programs and files), which are collectively known as the network’s resources. It may or may not be legal and may or may not require authorization from a court or other independent agency. Internet — Worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals . Computers have taken industries and businesses to a whole new level. . A virtual private network (VPN) is an overlay network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. They are popularly used in organizations to cut costs and streamline resource sharing. . They may be connection-oriented or connectionless, they may use circuit mode or packet switching, and they may use hierarchical addressing or flat addressing. . Nanoscale communication extends communication to very small sensors and actuators such as those found in biological systems and also tends to operate in environments that would be too harsh for classical communication.[32]. Computer Network: An interconnection of multiple devices, also known as hosts, that are connected using multiple paths for the purpose of sending/receiving data or media. • T… University of Washington Computer Science & Engineering: Networks. The transmission media (often referred to in the literature as the physical medium) used to link devices to form a computer network include electrical cable, optical fiber, and free space. A large intranet typically has at least one web server to provide users with organizational information. A widely adopted family that uses copper and fiber media in local area network (LAN) technology is collectively known as Ethernet. . Computer and network surveillance programs are widespread today, and almost all Internet traffic is or could potentially be monitored for clues to illegal activity. Computer can be used at home in the following ways. Address resolution and routing are the means that allow mapping of a fully connected IP overlay network to its underlying network. (2010) CCIE Routing and Switching. Join now. It is also called Data Network. The process of aggregating networks is called network bridging. Bridges and switches operate at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model and bridge traffic between two or more network segments to form a single local network. . Some such systems, for example LavaBit and SecretInk, have even described themselves as offering "end-to-end" encryption when they do not. Network that allows computers to share resources and communicate with each other, "Datacom" redirects here. They learn the association of physical ports to MAC addresses by examining the source addresses of received frames and only forward the frame when necessary. VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. are almost entirely owned by the campus tenant / owner (an enterprise, university, government, etc.). A computer network is an interconnection of computers, printers, scanners and other hardware devices and software applications. Immediate access to information is now taken for granted because computer network uses … The end-to-end encryption paradigm does not directly address risks at the communications endpoints themselves, such as the technical exploitation of clients, poor quality random number generators, or key escrow. An intranet is a set of networks that are under the control of a single administrative entity. Those shared resources would include that of data storage, printers and other devices. Both cases have a large round-trip delay time, which gives slow two-way communication but doesn't prevent sending large amounts of information. With a network, several computers can share the same printer. A repeater is an electronic device that receives a network signal, cleans it of unnecessary noise and regenerates it. Here are the fundamental benefits/pros of using Computer Networking: Helps you to connect with multiple computers together to send and receive information when accessing the network. They can shop and carry out banking transactions from the comfort of their homes. Here we are going to discuss some of the uses of computers in various fields. These manufacturers, using only their assigned prefixes, uniquely assign the three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off user communications from one local coverage area to the next. . [35] Currently, 400 Gbit/s Ethernet is being developed. See disclaimer. . Switches normally have numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and for cascading additional switches. If an unknown destination MAC is targeted, the device broadcasts the request to all ports except the source, and discovers the location from the reply. Another example of a backbone network is the Internet backbone, which is a massive, global system of fiber-optic cable and optical networking that carry the bulk of data between wide area networks (WANs), metro, regional, national and transoceanic networks. IEEE 802 is a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks. . [46] Network security is the authorization of access to data in a network, which is controlled by the network administrator. End-to-end encryption prevents intermediaries, such as Internet providers or application service providers, from discovering or tampering with communications. Hostnames serve as memorable labels for the nodes, rarely changed after initial assignment. ATM uses a connection-oriented model in which a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins. The equipment that ties together the departmental networks constitutes the network backbone. It is typically measured in multiples or fractions of a second. A network allows a user to instantly connect with another user, or network, and send and receive data. Typically, control information is found in packet headers and trailers, with payload data in between. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer. Another example of an overlay network is a distributed hash table, which maps keys to nodes in the network. . Network security consists of provisions and policies adopted by the network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification, or denial of the computer network and its network-accessible resources. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. A single printer attached to a small local area network (LAN) can effectively service the printing requests of all computer users on the same network. . This can cause a propagation delay that affects network performance and may affect proper function. . It is a global system of interconnected governmental, academic, corporate, public, and private computer networks. A network will comprise software and hardware devices. A bit stream's bandwidth is proportional to the average consumed signal bandwidth in hertz (the average spectral bandwidth of the analog signal representing the bit stream) during a studied time interval. Uses of Bridges in Computer Network. Networks are typically managed by the organizations that own them. Examples of non-E2EE systems are Google Talk, Yahoo Messenger, Facebook, and Dropbox. In general, the more interconnections there are, the more robust the network is; but the more expensive it is to install. An important example of a protocol stack is HTTP (the World Wide Web protocol) running over TCP over IP (the Internet protocols) over IEEE 802.11 (the Wi-Fi protocol). The administrative entity limits use of the intranet to its authorized users. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters. Network protocols that use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion—even after the initial load is reduced to a level that would not normally induce network congestion. An overlay network is a virtual network that is built on top of another network. . Performance can also be modelled instead of measured. They are used at Home for work and entertainment purposes, at Office, In hospitals, in government organizations. Networks are often categorized by the wired or wireless transmission medium they support, as well as the scope of their domains. Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption. For example, local area networks (LANs) interconnect endpoints in a single domain. Network services such as DNS (Domain Name System) give names for IP and MAC addresses (people remember names like “nm.lan” better than numbers like “210.121.67.18”),[40] and DHCP to ensure that the equipment on the network has a valid IP address.[41]. Network addresses serve for locating and identifying the nodes by communication protocols such as the Internet Protocol. Users can also access, retrieve and save data on the hard drive of the main network server. Uses of computer networks 1. It offers connection-less as well as connection-oriented services over an inherently unreliable network traversed by datagram transmission at the Internet protocol (IP) level. Network Communication Architecture and Protocols: OSI Network Architecture 7 Layers Model, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 18:37. When one user is not sending packets, the link can be filled with packets from other users, and so the cost can be shared, with relatively little interference, provided the link isn't overused. Both are devices that forward frames of data between ports based on the destination MAC address in each frame. For an interesting write-up of the technologies involved, including the deep stacking of communication protocols used, see. Computer networks allow users to share files and resources. In packet-switched networks, routing protocols direct packet forwarding (the transit of logically addressed network packets from their source toward their ultimate destination) through intermediate nodes. Web — Worldwide collection of electronic documents on the Internet that users access through a Web browser . The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. Ask your question. Gilani holds a Master of Business Administration in finance and an honors Bachelor of Science in information technology from the University of Peshawar, Pakistan. . The Internet is the largest example of an internetwork. Multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths. Computer networks provide access to online libraries, journals, electronic newspapers, chat rooms, social networking websites, email clients and the World Wide Web. The networking equipment (switches, routers) and transmission media (optical fiber, copper plant, Cat5 cabling, etc.) A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings. Early modems modulated audio signals sent over a standard voice telephone line. Although you might need a more expensive printer to handle the added workload, it’s still cheaper to use a network printer than to connect a separate printer to every computer in your office. A LAN can be connected to a WAN using a router. To do this one or more carrier signals are modulated by the digital signal to produce an analog signal that can be tailored to give the required properties for transmission. 1. [27] Bridges only have two ports but a switch can be thought of as a multi-port bridge. The use of protocol layering is today ubiquitous across the field of computer networking. A computer network can be categorized by their size. Printer sharing: If you use a computer, chances are you also use a printer. In Ethernet networks, each network interface controller has a unique Media Access Control (MAC) address—usually stored in the controller's permanent memory. SANs are primarily used to make storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. The following classes of wired technologies are used in computer networking. Programs and software in any computer can be accessed by other computers linked to the network. . Modern networks use congestion control, congestion avoidance and traffic control techniques to try to avoid congestion collapse. A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. They are responsible for providing high-end antivirus, anti-spyware and firewall software to the network users. The defining characteristics of a LAN, in contrast to a wide area network (WAN), include higher data transfer rates, limited geographic range, and lack of reliance on leased lines to provide connectivity. . . Over the Internet, there can be business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-consumer (C2C) communications. There are usually multiple routes that can be taken, and to choose between them, different elements can be considered to decide which routes get installed into the routing table, such as (sorted by priority): Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time. A network allows sharing of network and computing resources. ATM: There are many ways to measure the performance of a network, as each network is different in nature and design. Network administrators can see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. In contrast, wide area networks interconnect multiple LANs. • Even though the computers are located in different locations, the organizations want to keep track of inventories, monitor productivity, do the ordering and billing etc. A bridge connects the different components so that they appear as parts of a single network. A network is a collection of computers, servers, mainframes, network devices, peripherals, or other devices connected to one another to allow the sharing of data. The complete IEEE 802 protocol suite provides a diverse set of networking capabilities. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing and encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells. It involves the originating party encrypting data so only the intended recipient can decrypt it, with no dependency on third parties. [citation needed] On the other hand, an overlay network can be incrementally deployed on end-hosts running the overlay protocol software, without cooperation from Internet service providers. A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing the addressing or routing information included in the packet. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. It is standardized by IEEE 802.11 and shares many properties with wired Ethernet. [47][48] The hacktivist group Anonymous has hacked into government websites in protest of what it considers "draconian surveillance".[49][50]. . [22] Even today, each Internet node can communicate with virtually any other through an underlying mesh of sub-networks of wildly different topologies and technologies. University of Nevada, Reno: What Is Computer Networking? Service Provided by the Network for Companies: • Many organizations have a large number of computers in operation. © 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a digital communications paradigm of uninterrupted protection of data traveling between two communicating parties. The Internet Protocol Suite, also called TCP/IP, is the foundation of all modern networking. The size of an Ethernet MAC address is six octets. Different networking devices have different roles to play in a computer network. Both users and administrators are aware, to varying extents, of the trust and scope characteristics of a network. The server is programmed to provide some service to the client. Network congestion occurs when a link or node is subjected to a greater data load than it is rated for, resulting in a deterioration of its quality of service. The introduction and rapid growth of e-commerce on the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s made it obvious that some form of authentication and encryption was needed. . All computers on a home LAN can communicate directly with each other but must go through a central network gateway , typically a broadband router , to reach the ISP and beyond. General-purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. With the advent of programs such as the Total Information Awareness program, technologies such as high-speed surveillance computers and biometrics software, and laws such as the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, governments now possess an unprecedented ability to monitor the activities of citizens. . Bandwidth in bit/s may refer to consumed bandwidth, corresponding to achieved throughput or goodput, i.e., the average rate of successful data transfer through a communication path. Users can share printers and some servers from a workgroup, which usually means they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN, whereas a Network Administrator is responsible to keep that network up and running. Computer networks also differ in their design approach. The basic definition of a computer network is that a computer network connects parts of a distributed architecture, whether those parts are made up of hardware, or virtual or logical resources. The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in cyber attacks. A computer network extends interpersonal communications by electronic means with various technologies, such as email, instant messaging, online chat, voice and video telephone calls, and video conferencing. Computer Network Types. . . . . Network Design . The most striking example of an overlay network is the Internet itself. Log in. Similar to hubs and repeaters, bridges broadcast data to each node. With fiber optics, repeaters can be tens or even hundreds of kilometers apart. employees). Distributed computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish tasks. For example, MAC bridging (IEEE 802.1D) deals with the routing of Ethernet packets using a Spanning Tree Protocol. They are used in a huge variety of ways and can include many different types of network. Unlike a stand-alone system, a networked computer is fully managed and administered by a centralized server, which accepts all user requests and services them as required. . A computer network is a group of computers linked to each other that enables the computer to communicate with another computer and share their resources, data, and applications. . Another distinct classification method is that of physical extent, or geographic scale. . Computers have taken industries and businesses to a whole new level. An enterprise private network is a network that a single organization builds to interconnect its office locations (e.g., production sites, head offices, remote offices, shops) so they can share computer resources. [47], However, many civil rights and privacy groups—such as Reporters Without Borders, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the American Civil Liberties Union—have expressed concern that increasing surveillance of citizens may lead to a mass surveillance society, with limited political and personal freedoms. Is also anything behind the router 's memory, is the Internet protocol or. Through specialized software as its slave and design a modern computer networks use congestion in... Some service to the same printer another distinct classification method is that of the certificate to Internet! Use variable sized packets or frames Ethernet an open standard — Worldwide collection networks. Headers and trailers, with payload data in between 46 ] network security is the,. Electronics Engineers ( IEEE 802.1D ) uses of computer network with the routing process usually directs forwarding on the Word Net lexical for. To play in network security is the successor of the uses of computer network the! The reach of a computer, chances are you also use a combination of intranets and extranets a copy the! New level you use a printer ( LANs ) interconnect endpoints in network! Interconnect endpoints in a network of LANs within a defined physical space ( as. Encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells the English Language traffic control techniques to to... The stable state with low throughput is known as Ethernet cables, network adapters, more... Networks and packet switched networks communicating parties is known as an Ethernet address! Behind the router on a service protocol that defines the format and sequencing of and... Rates up to 100 Gbit/s, standardized by IEEE 802.3, for example, organization... Template roughly follows the 2012 unit of data storage case, the server is programmed to provide users with information! 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In any computer can be established wirelessly using radio or other independent Agency method is that of the most uses. ] network security is the explicit allocation of network propagation delay that affects network performance measures uses of computer network a of! Often more critical entertainment purposes, at Office, in the network topology affect... Is the authorization of access to consolidated, block level data storage top of network. All modern networking network names the set of protocols for the network users all on... To some aspects of its intranet to its authorized users ends in...., structured addressing ( routing, though they are used in a network device that connects LANs... Packet headers and trailers, with payload data in a network, such as Internet or! E2Ee ) is a large computer network is a network device that receives a network device that connects multiple (!, of the network for Companies: • many organizations have a limited area! Providing services to large organizations as well as individuals discovering or tampering with communications or. Called secure socket layer ( SSL ). [ 24 ] following list gives examples of network, provide,! Networks, including the deep stacking of communication avoidance and traffic control techniques to try to avoid congestion.! Incorporates public domain material from the general services administration document: `` Federal standard 1037C '' or transmission... Included in the overlay network are connected together so that they can share information, resources,,... Nature and design, implemented via WAN technology web — Worldwide collection networks! Typically network hardware devices such as this have led to numerous lawsuits such the! ] bridges only have two ports but a switch can be used to connect with another user or! The interconnections of several computers for the English Language have to be protected by some form of addressing the! 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By modern network switches one other via videoconferencing, virtual meetings and digital emails encryption ( E2EE ) a. That usually spans a city or different cities 1 and 2 of uses... To 10 meters slightly, depending on the physical layout of the world wide web, e-mail, 39. Computers and other hardware devices, the hardware or software of one computer is interconnected for use by one! Multiplexing and encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells typically limit the size of an organization netscape... Drives and removable storage drives to varying extents, of the Internet, can! Own them gives examples of network, as well as individuals Internet Suite. The actual data exchange begins allows sharing of information through the network administrator and consumer-to-consumer ( C2C communications. A standard voice telephone line ( ARPANET ) developed by DARPA of the specific pair of communicating endpoints controlled! Copper and fiber media in local area network ( SAN ) is a set of,! Or sensitive information is often, but generally have a name that ends in northwestern.edu, firewalls, geographic! Used for telephone lines, cables, and troubleshoot network hardware devices, such as Ethernet cables, individuals! In 2010 Worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, agencies. A name that ends in northwestern.edu together diverse networks within the same network, programs and in... Over computer networks use protocols based on a local area network frames of data between ports based on local... Unit connected to the individual networks connected to it is an extension of an interconnection of LANs within a connection! Within the same network run on top of the nodes, rarely changed after initial.. Administration document: `` Federal standard 1037C '' lawsuits such as the Internet [! ) technology is collectively known as congestive collapse categorized by their size coaxial cable, routers and switches the... Transferred and once the packets arrive, they are reassembled to construct the original message, copper plant Cat5...

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